Family car under control
The family car should be, above all, big and safe. Therefore, deciding to buy a car, which will serve all members of the household, usually choose the model that easily accommodates childish seats, and the luggage trolley and of course complex. No less important is the issue of security. But often we forget that a lot depends on us - not only when it comes to careful driving, but also in terms of servicing the car. Faulty brakes may yet lead to a real tragedy, like eg. Oil leak, which is a threat also for other road users. To avoid dangerous situations, it is therefore necessary regular servicing cars - after all, safety is paramount.
In the crankcase
In the crankcase of a vehicle engine, motor oil lubricates rotating or sliding surfaces between the crankshaft journal bearings (main bearings and big-end bearings), and rods connecting the pistons to the crankshaft. The oil collects in an oil pan, or sump, at the bottom of the crankcase. In some small engines such as lawn mower engines, dippers on the bottoms of connecting rods dip into the oil at the bottom and splash it around the crankcase as needed to lubricate parts inside. In modern vehicle engines, the oil pump takes oil from the oil pan and sends it through the oil filter into oil galleries, from which the oil lubricates the main bearings holding the crankshaft up at the main journals and camshaft bearings operating the valves. In typical modern vehicles, oil pressure-fed from the oil galleries to the main bearings enters holes in the main journals of the crankshaft. From these holes in the main journals, the oil moves through passageways inside the crankshaft to exit holes in the rod journals to lubricate the rod bearings and connecting rods. Some simpler designs relied on these rapidly moving parts to splash and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. However, in modern designs, there are also passageways through the rods which carry oil from the rod bearings to the rod-piston connections and lubricate the contacting surfaces between the piston rings and interior surfaces of the cylinders. This oil film also serves as a seal between the piston rings and cylinder walls to separate the combustion chamber in the cylinder head from the crankcase. The oil then drips back down into the oil pan.45
Motor oil may also serve as a cooling agent. In some constructions oil is sprayed through a nozzle inside the crankcase onto the piston to provide cooling of specific parts that undergo high temperature strain. On the other hand, the thermal capacity of the oil pool has to be filled, i.e. the oil has to reach its designed temperature range before it can protect the engine under high load. This typically takes longer than heating the main cooling agent ? water or mixtures thereof ? up to its operating temperature. In order to inform the driver about the oil temperature, some older and most high performance or racing engines feature an oil thermometer.
Due to its high viscosity, motor oil is not always the preferred oil for certain applications. Some applications make use of lighter products such as WD-40, when a lighter oil is desired, or honing oil if the desired viscosity needs to be mid-range.6
For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation).
"Motor" redirects here. For other uses, see Motor (disambiguation).
A V6 internal combustion engine from a Mercedes car
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy.12 Heat engines, including internal combustion engines and external combustion engines (such as steam engines), burn a fuel to create heat, which then creates a force. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and others?such as clockwork motors in wind-up toys?use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion.